12V lead-acid battery, used in cars. Declared capacity 70Ah, weight 18 kilograms. Size approx. 28x18x20cm. Endurance around 10 years (but only 5 years in case of operating in 33°C environment), with a lifetime 200-500 cycles in case of 100%DoD (DoD is Depth of Discharge)
Also, 70Ah is a very optimistic value; such capacity is almost impossible to achieve in real life. Useable capacity significantly drops with higher current draw.
Plus, you need to be careful about the position of installation and maintenance or regular inspection is necessary (such as checking levels of electrolytes).
12V lithium-ion battery with the same declared capacity 70Ah (but, actually, it can deliver it fully without issue), having less than half weight, it is smaller and have triple or longer lifetime rate.
Maintenance-free, no matter in which position it is installed. The temperature range of the environment is wider than lead-acid as well.
The price of lithium rechargeable batteries is higher, but after counting all the advantages and disadvantages, the running cost (or price per each kWh you get from this battery) is much lower.
Here is one comparison chart, it can help you understand differences.
Worth to mention:
- Lithium-Ion batteries contain various chemistries (LMO, LCO, NCA) and, depending on that, have different results regarding performance, working temperature, lifecycle etc. The stated numbers are average about all of them.
- Time durability means degradation by age, even used very low or almost not at all.
- Running cost means how much $ cost you each cycle if you count two main factors: initial price of battery vs cycle lifetime, plus added efficiency and maintenance.
- Working temperature shows the widest range but normally is a bit different. For example, lithium batteries can produce energy in the range of -20/+65°C, but while charging, only in the range of 0-45°C.
- Cycle life means how many cycles of charge/discharge such a battery can withstand until the capacity drops below 80%. After that, the battery is still working, but performance, efficiency and reliability can show significant changes (drop).
- DoD means Depth of Discharge. One 100% cycle means charging to full capacity and then discharging to the lowest allowed cut-off voltage. 80% DoD means charging up to 80% (85%) capacity and then discharging to the bottom (or just 5% above) of the allowed cut-off limit. Decreasing the percentage of DoD means increasing the number of cycles practically for all batteries.
- Safety of lithium-ion batteries also depends on the chemistry of the battery. While NCA is very safe, LCO can be dangerous once the cell is punctured or shorted.